Dead bug exercise variations are one of our absolute favorite exercises when done properly with advanced progressions, they can be a core killer!! Learning to activate your deep spinal stabilizers like the transversus abdominis in these positions is a stepping stone for progressing to more dynamic exercises. As with all “core stabilization” exercises, you must progress them to more functional and upright movements once you learn what it feels like to truly stabilize your spine!


Core Stabilization: The Dead Bug Exercise

As previously mentioned, the dead bug is an all-encompassing core stabilization exercise that requires an extensive amount of control from our entire core! Moreover, our deep core stabilizers are often neglected, and there have been correlations and speculations between the inactivity of this particular muscle group and low back pain. We may think that doing dynamic exercises like curl-ups is what is best for our core; however, spending time working on exercises that actually resist trunk motion rather than promoting it is what creates the foundation your core needs! Once the stability is established, then you can begin to work towards advanced core exercises that involve more moving parts. Below we show you the basics of this exercise along with other dead bug exercise variations with a description of the set-up as well as correct execution!

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Sample Core [P]rehab Program Exercise

So what exactly is the dead bug exercise?

  • To perform this exercise, you will begin laying on your back on a comfortable surface, such as a padded mat, carpet, etc.


  • Next, you will want to get into the starting position. This is when your arms are extended in line with your shoulders, and your legs are lifted so that your knees are directly over your hips. (This is the dead bug position!)


  • To initiate the movement, sink your belly button down towards your spine to engage your core. You should feel that your low back is glued down to the surface you are on, with no gaps between your back and that particular surface.


  • With your core stabilized, move one arm back behind you and slowly lower down the opposite leg towards the floor simultaneously with a slow and controlled movement pattern


  • Bring both extremities back to the dead bug starting position, and then repeat with the opposite extremities


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Proper Motor Control Development

These deep core-stabilizing muscles are important for our spine integrity and health. They are responsible for stabilizing each individual vertebra that, when all added together, makes up our spine. In order to move our spine for function, we activate our superficial core muscles like our rectus abdominis and erector spinae. However, if these superficial core muscles attempt to do all of the work without our deep core muscles also doing their job, then unsynchronized motion and movements can occur, which is not optimal for performance and also could potentially cause pain and discomfort.

Shown here is an alternating leg dead bug exercise variation. Notice how my pelvis/spine stays braced and neutral throughout the leg movements (which increase the lever arm thus making the exercise harder). Too often people don’t brace or control this movement properly and thus don’t get any sort of core work from it. You need to find your motor control limit on how far you can extend your leg while maintaining an optimal braced position. On Mike’s third rep, you can see my pelvis move, hence this is Mike’s limit. With practice, you will be able to lower/extend your legs further and further. Now find your limit!

As you continue to work on this exercise, your motor control limit threshold will increase! This means you will eventually be able to perform more repetitions before movement compensations occur. It is always important to understand when your compensations occur and to not continue moving through those compensations. Be intentional with your exercises. In many cases, LESS is MORE!


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Dead Bug Exercise Variations: Incorporate Upper Extremity Movements

Here is another variation of the dead bugs. This time, we are using our upper extremity to vary the biomechanical demands placed upon our core. You can alternate arms or reach overhead simultaneously. Again, the same rule applies: the core needs to stay braced and activated the entire time!

The goal of motor control exercises is to enable the patient to regain control and coordination of the spine and pelvis using principles of motor learning. There is a growing body of literature that supports utilizing motor control exercises as a treatment for chronic and recurrent low back pain. Low back pain is a multifaceted problem that is highly influenced by pain science, kinesiophobia, physiology, and psychology. In no way shape or form am I saying motor control exercises will alleviate low back pain 100% of the time and that’s all that you should be doing – however, there is a growing body of literature that supports motor control exercises as an effective treatment approach in addition to the normal standard of care. This is especially true for those with clinical lumbar instability who have impaired control and coordination of the spinal muscles.


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Head Lift Variation

What is excellent about this dead bug exercise variation is that by performing a head lift, you not only are working on your core stabilization, but you are also targeting recruitment of your deep neck flexors! Deep neck flexor muscular endurance is an important indicator of good neck stability and health! By performing just this small head lift, you will also feel that your core has to work that much harder than if your head is relaxed on the floor. You will be surprised by how much more your core becomes engaged with this small movement progression!

Sample Core [P]rehab Program Exercise

Start this exercise on your back in a 90/90 position, with your knees over your hips and your arms in front of your shoulders. Keep the small of your back pushed into the floor by activating your core. While maintaining core activation, perform a chin tuck and lift your head/neck off the ground. While maintaining head/neck position, drop one leg and the opposite arm towards the floor. The closer you drop the arms and legs to the floor, the more challenging this exercise will be. Return to the starting position and repeat on the opposite side.


Looking To Level Up Your Core? Here Are Some Quick Tips!


Regress The Movement If It is Too Challenging!

Regressions are not a bad thing! In fact, it is better to start with an exercise difficulty that is most appropriate for you, rather than trying to perform a particular movement that may be too challenging for your body to handle. This is where people can run into trouble with faulty movement patterns, as well as potential injury. What is excellent about the dead bug is that it not only can be progressed to a more challenging exercise but it can also be regressed to make it a more appropriate exercise for individuals!

Legs Horizontal

Sample Core [P]rehab Program Exercise

Start this exercise on your back in a 90/90 position of your knees and hips. Keep the small of your back pushed into the floor by activating your core. While maintaining core activation extend your legs out one at a time. The closer your feet are to the floor the more challenging this exercise will be on your core. By keeping your arms on your abdomen, this exercise is less challenging than the traditional dead bug, which incorporates both arm and leg movement! This is a perfect regression for those dealing with acute low back pain.


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Anti-Extension and Anti-Rotation Dead Bug Exercise Variations

Here are some amazing advanced dead bug exercise variations that involve placing an anti-rotation and anti-extension torque on the core. The key here is to maintain an absolutely stable and still pelvis/spine. What makes these so advanced is the torque attempting to pull your spine into either rotation or extension. The only way to prevent your pelvis/spine from moving is to stabilize with your core!

Note that in the anti-rotation dead bug exercise variation you can either hold the theraband with one or two arms. Using one vs two arms will equally provide the same anti-rotation torque; the difference between them is determining which other muscle groups must be called upon to stabilize the upper extremity. Using only my left hand (away from the theraband anchor), I must activate my posterior deltoid and scapular retractors. Using only my right hand (closer to the theraband anchor), I must activate my pectoralis and anterior deltoid. These are just some things to keep in mind when determining your handhold!

Working on anti-rotation is excellent because oftentimes with activities of daily living, our core is constantly challenged. Whether someone bumps into you when walking on the sidewalk, or you lose your balance on an uneven surface, your core helps you prevent excessive, uncontrolled movements!

With the anti-extension dead bug exercise variation, you get great recruitment of the lats and triceps. Remember not to overly flex the cervical spine though!


Take Your Core Health To The Next Level

core performance program the prehab guys dead bug exercise variations

The outcome of a great core program is NOT a 6-pack but it if does happen we are sure you wouldn’t be upset! The core should be thought of as both a dynamic suitcase and an energy transfer center. The goal is to build a rock-solid suitcase for each aspect of the core and to improve its ability to transfer energy to and from the legs and arms.



  1. Bystrom et al 2013. Motor Control Exercises Reduces Pain and Disability in Chronic and Recurrent Low Back Patients in SPINE.


About The Author

Michael Lau, PT, DPT, CSCS

[P]rehab Co-Founder & Chief Product Officer

Michael was born and raised in Northern California but now currently resides in Sunny SoCal ever since attending the University of California, Los Angeles as an undergraduate majoring in physiology. After his undergraduate studies, he received his Doctorate in Physical Therapy from cross-town rival the University of Southern California. As a licensed physical therapist with a strong background in strength and conditioning, Michael likes to blend the realms of strength training and rehabilitation to provide prehab, or preventative rehabilitation, to his patients. A common human behavior is to address problems after they become an issue and far often too late, which is a reactionary approach. He believes the key to improved health care is education and awareness. This proactive approach-prehab-can reduce the risk of injuries and pain in the first place. He is a huge proponent of movement education and pain science. Clinically, he has a special interest in ACLR rehab and return to sport for the lower extremity athlete.






Disclaimer – The content here is designed for information & education purposes only and is not intended for medical advice.

About the author : Michael Lau PT, DPT, CSCS


  1. […] visit our back section of our blog to learn more about other variations of core exercises including dead bugs and […]

  2. Jennifer October 24, 2018 at 2:27 pm

    Can you say more about your caution against flexing the cervical spine too much?

  3. Alita Battle Angel 123 Movies January 24, 2019 at 10:49 am

    Great article.

  4. Nicola K August 21, 2020 at 3:37 pm

    Thankyou for the information on the motor control limit. I’m very out of shape and had a group PT session encourage me to move both legs together through a full range of motion while in deadbug position and I couldn’t do it without compromising my back, and I didn’t know how to modify the exercise to make it work. Now I know how to find out the safe range of motion and work from there.

    • Sherif Elnaggar August 25, 2020 at 7:13 am

      You’re welcome! Thank you for your comments and awesome to hear you have found something that works for you!

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