Have you been dealing with a nagging pain in your buttock that just doesn’t want to go away? You’ve tried everything. Ice, heat, massaging the area, but nothing is working! This annoyance of pain around the backside of your hip may be due to a condition known as ‘piriformis syndrome’, which is somewhat of a conundrum in the healthcare field. This condition can be a real pain in the butt, (pun intended). In this article, we will discuss piriformis syndrome, and what you can do to help relieve the pain that could be stemming from this ‘condition’.


What Is The Piriformis?

Put simply, the piriformis is one of your hip muscles that play a key role in rotation, flexion, and abduction (moving away from the midline) of the hip. It also provides postural stability when standing and walking.

The muscular origin (where the muscle begins in the body) is at the anterior sacrum (front of the tailbone) and runs in a diagonal direction to the outside of your femur (hip bone). You can find this muscle by placing your hand at your tailbone below your low back, then moving your hand slightly to one side of your butt in a downward, diagonal direction.

Piriformis Muscle Anatomy


A large nerve you may have heard of known as the sciatic nerve passes underneath this muscle, and can be a culprit of pain in individuals who have piriformis syndrome. In addition, there are anatomical variations that may exist from one individual to another. For example, not everyone has the same torso or lower leg length, we all have different anatomical make-up! In regards to the sciatic nerve and its relationship to the piriformis muscle as it travels down the back of the leg, it may not take this same path in every individual that is shown in the picture above. Whether these anatomical variations actually matter will be discussed later on.


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hip rehab program piriformis syndrome prehab guys

The Hip Rehab Program is a physical therapist-developed, step-by-step program that teaches you how to optimize your hip health, including overcoming buttock pain. Learn more HERE! 


A Change In Nomenclature: Deep Gluteal Syndrome

This condition was first described in 1928 and the term was first introduced in 1947. You would think that because this term has been around for a long period of time, the causes behind it would be well understood; however, that is not the case. Within research and healthcare, there continue to be many questions in regards to this clinical diagnosis. The current definition of piriformis syndrome is a condition that is characterized by a combination of symptoms including buttock or hip pain. Moreover, this syndrome causes compression of the sciatic nerve, due to excessive contraction of the piriformis muscle. Pathologies of the piriformis that may cause this sciatic pain include:

  • Piriformis muscle spasm


  • Damage to the piriformis from an acute injury or trauma


  • Anatomical variations of the piriformis muscle, including insidious hypertrophy (muscle growth)


  • Variations in the course of the sciatic nerve in relation to the piriformis muscle


  • Weakness of the surrounding hip musculature, placing a more eccentric load (muscle lengthening against gravity) on the piriformis


Moreover, there has been a shift in recent literature regarding the nomenclature of this diagnosis, as you may also hear the term ‘deep gluteal syndrome’. Martin et. al defined this in the Journal of Hip Preservation Surgery as, “the presence of pain in the buttock caused from non-discogenic and extrapelvic entrapment of the sciatic nerve”. What differentiates this recent shift towards deep gluteal syndrome as a more objective term versus piriformis syndrome, is that there are more structures within the hip that can cause entrapment of the sciatic nerve. This includes the fibrous bands of blood vessels, gluteal muscles, hamstring muscles, the deep hip external and internal rotators, and other space-occupying lesions. With these differences in mind regarding terminology, the generalized treatment approach remains the same in regards to improving one’s symptoms with buttock pain.


Fix that Pain in Your Butt


How Do I Know If I Have It? A Diagnosis By Exclusion

Because this umbrella of a term does not always have a ‘clear-cut’ cause, the diagnosis of it is usually by exclusion, meaning all other possibilities of pain around the back side of the hip into the legs is ruled out. Other pathologies that can cause pain in the back side of the hip area into the leg include:

  • Sacroiliac joint pain (SI joint)



  • Spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal foramina)



  • Pain referral from the facets (joints) of the lumbar spine


 Because this is a diagnosis of exclusion, healthcare practitioners should perform a thorough evaluation to ensure no other competing diagnoses are contributing to the patient’s symptoms. In an article by Danazumi et. al, the authors discussed that roughly 5% of individuals who are diagnosed as having low back pain were misdiagnosed, as they actually had piriformis syndrome. Yes, this is a small number; however, clinicians should keep this diagnosis in their differential list when deciphering why a patient may be experiencing specific symptoms in their buttock and/or leg.


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What Does Piriformis Syndrome Feel Like?

Common signs and symptoms of piriformis syndrome include:

  • Potential increased pain in the buttock area when walking and/or running


  • Pain with prolonged sitting, especially on firm surfaces


  • Pain can refer from the buttock into the back of the thigh, and even down the entire backside of the leg in the sciatic nerve distribution if more severe


  • Pain may be reproduced when the hip is in the FAIR position (flexion, adduction, and internal rotation)


  • Pain may be reproduced with straight leg raise testing (placing tension on the sciatic nerve)


  • Pain with palpation (pressure) to the piriformis muscle. There may also be increased spasming and ‘trigger points’ of this muscle with palpation


Differentiation of Buttock Pain

piriformis syndrome buttock pain prehab guys


Sciatic Nerve and Piriformis Muscle Anatomical Variations: Does This Matter?


Some research that involves studying the anatomy of the piriformis and the way the sciatic nerve interacts with it has included hypotheses that there are anatomical variations present that may put one at risk to develop piriformis syndrome. One study by Beaton and Anson looked at 240 cadaveric dissections of the relationship between the piriformis and sciatic nerve. The results of the study were:

  • 90% of the cadavers had normal anatomy with the sciatic nerve passing below (underneath) the piriformis


  • The other 10% of the cadavers had variations which included:
    • A sciatic nerve that split, passing through and below the piriformis


    • A sciatic nerve that split, passing above and below the piriformis


    • A sciatic nerve that passes directly through the piriformis muscle 


Another meta-analysis of 18 studies with over 6500 cadavers demonstrated abnormalities in this anatomical relationship in 16.9% of their sample. As you can see in the image above, other studies have corroborated even more variations than the ones we listed! So the real question is…do these anatomical variations actually predispose someone to developing piriformis syndrome? According to the literature, no. The results in both of these studies revealed there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of this condition between those individuals who had an anatomical variation and those who did not. With that being said, it is still beneficial to understand that these anatomical variations do exist, and may provide some context as to why someone is experiencing their symptoms.



How Do I Decrease My Butt Pain?

Currently, treatment options for individuals with piriformis syndrome include exercise, manual therapy, modalities such as shockwave therapy, dry needling medications, or injections. There is no clear consensus that delineates what the best treatment option is at this time due to the lack of evidence in this area of practice. However, several studies have supported physical therapy and specific exercise in helping modulate symptoms related to piriformis syndrome. Below we will show you some exercises that you can perform to help you overcome this nagging pain!

Supine Piriformis Stretch

Sample Hip Rehab Program Exercise Video

  • HOW: While laying face up on the floor cross one leg over and across the other. The closer you bring your foot to your butt on the leg that is on the floor the further you will stretch your opposite hip. If this is not enough of a stretch, you can thread the needle by elevating your leg that was on the floor and hugging your shin bone towards your chest. If the crossed leg is slipping you can hold onto it with your opposite hand.


  • FEEL: You will feel a deep stretch in the back hip on the leg that is crossing. The closer you hug your legs the stronger the stretch. 


  • COMPENSATION: Keep your arms slightly out from your side to achieve the 30 degrees of abduction, don’t have them right at your side.


Supine Sciatic Nerve Slider

Sample Hip Rehab Program Exercise Video

 As previously mentioned, sometimes piriformis syndrome may cause symptoms down the back of the thigh due to sciatic nerve compression or irritation. This exercise will help alleviate those symptoms by helping enhance the mobility of that nerve. 


Glute Foam Rolling

Here are some tips for foam rolling your gluteal region:

  • You can cross your involved leg over your opposite leg to gain a dynamic stretch while you are foam rolling


  • By leaning towards the involved side, it will help get more pressure on the hip musculature


  • You can also utilize something with a smaller surface area, which will be more focal and localized to the muscle, such as a lacrosse ball


  • Sometimes less is more, you may want to back off from an area causing pain down your leg or causing nerve symptoms as this can have a negative delayed effect (AKA you feel your pain later after doing this!)


Only Stretching Is Not The Answer!

A tight piriformis muscle that is often in spasm may receive relief from stretching that was shown with the exercises above, yet that may not help address tissue remodeling and facilitation of blood flow and the benefits you may experience could be short-lived! In addition to stretching, performing muscle activation and specific strengthening exercises will also promote more benefits long term rather than solely stretching! You can learn more about the topic of stretching by listening to our podcast episode below!


how much do i need to stretch piriformis syndrome the prehab guys podcast


A Shift In Focus Towards Hip Muscle Strengthening and Re-Education

The most common hypothesis as to why an individual experiences piriformis syndrome is due to shortening, tightening, or spasming of the muscle. However, there have also been contrary beliefs that this muscle may be working in more of a lengthened position, which makes it subject to higher stresses eccentrically during daily activities. There is also the thought that a really tight/spasming muscle is typically a muscle that’s been overworked or extremely fatigued!

In an article from the Journal of Orthopedics and Sports Physical Therapy by Tonley et. al, the authors discussed if there is a weakness of our gluteus maximus and/or medius (which extend and abduct the hip respectively), our hips may excessively adduct (move closer to the midline) and internally rotate, ultimately lengthening and putting more stress on the piriformis muscle. The authors also reported that other studies on the topic of piriformis syndrome have also found hip abductors to have strength deficits in individuals subject to this condition, which is a key muscle in helping stabilize our pelvis with weight-bearing activities, such as walking or running.

Therefore, our take-home message in regards to the above findings is to not neglect strengthening and muscle re-education, as this may be a key, underlying impairment leading to your buttock pain. Below we will show you some of our favorite strengthening exercises for the hip!


Utilize Functional Range Conditioning

To incorporate muscular activation for your hips, certain functional range conditioning exercises (FRC) can help facilitate this process. FRC is a specific mode of exercise that helps improve mobility by utilizing strength and neuromuscular control.

Progressive Angular Isometric Loading (PAIL) and Regressive Angular Isometric Loading (RAIL) are specific types of FRC exercises. These techniques help teach the central nervous system (CNS) how to control and function in newly acquired ranges. Utilizing isometric contraction teaches the nervous system to have active control over a particular range (i.e. shortened or lengthened positions). These techniques help expand the available range of motion. In addition, PAILs and RAILs will help build strength and tissue adaptation in both the shortened and lengthened ranges of motion. A key component while performing PAILs and RAILs is to irradiate, which means creating tension throughout the body.


To perform this exercise, you will statically hold a 90-90 hip position for about 2 minutes. After the 2 minutes, you will irradiate (create tension) throughout the entire body and perform a PAIL contraction with one leg by driving the leg into the ground, ramping tension up to 100% effort by the end of the 10-second count.

After the PAIL contraction, you will then switch to a RAIL contraction–again, ramping tension up to 100% effort within the 10-second count–by actively bringing yourself further into a new range. After completing that cycle (Hold position: 2 minutes, then PAIL/RAIL contraction) you will notice that you have acquired a new, improved range! You can then repeat this exact sequence.

Hip Thrust

The hip thrust exercise is one of the best exercises to activate the gluteus maximus, which promotes hip extension! We have a plethora of hip thrust variations in our exercise library!


What Else Can We Do? Avoid Prolonged Sitting!

A common complaint for individuals with buttock pain is that prolonged sitting makes symptoms worse, especially on firm surfaces. If we stay in one position for hours on end, this is when adaptive positioning may occur, which is when muscles like our piriformis, ligaments, tendons, and other soft tissues become tightened/lengthened within specific positions, leading to mobility deficits and/or pain. We know there is ‘no perfect posture’; however, we can set ourselves up for success by making frequent movement each day a part of our lifestyle. Investing in a standing desk is a great option, or setting reminders on your phone or computer at least 1-2x/hour are great options. Activity modifications go a long way in helping overcome your symptoms!


perfect work desk posture the prehab guys


Closing Thoughts

Piriformis syndrome is still an anomaly in the healthcare field. Individuals usually complain of the nagging buttock or hip pain that can refer to the back of the leg. This is due to increased tension and/or spasm of this piriformis muscle, which then causes compression and irritation of the sciatic nerve. There has been a shift towards the term ‘deep gluteal syndrome’, as more recent research has corroborated more structures within the hip that can cause compression of the sciatic nerve in addition to the piriformis muscle. All of the diagnoses that could cause hip or leg pain should be excluded before confirming this syndrome as a diagnosis.

In regards to treatment, manual therapy and specific exercise, as well as activity modification, have shown promising results, yet more evidence is needed to decipher the best approach to manage this condition. Stretching and soft tissue work can provide temporary relief; however, activation and strengthening exercises will assist in long-term benefits. If you are dealing with pain in your buttock or hip area and have not had a formal evaluation, seek a consultation from a physical therapist or orthopedist who can differentially diagnose your specific symptoms!


Take Control of Your Hip Pain!

hip rehab program piriformis syndrome prehab guys

It’s all in the hips! Okay, maybe not ALL but in most activities the hips are the main driver of movement. The surrounding hip musculature provides stability and force production for walking, lunging, single leg stance, and squatting patterns. It’s a unique design that requires mobility, stability, strength, and power. If mobility and stability become compromised discomfort becomes the result. In this program, you learn to take control and earn back meaningful activity by improving hip mobility, stability, and strength, or a better way to put it: function!




About The Author

Sherif Elnaggar, PT, DPT, OCS, SCS

[P]rehab Head of Content

Sherif graduated from Temple University with a Bachelor’s of Science Degree and a concentration in Kinesiology. He then received his Doctorate of Physical Therapy Degree from DeSales University, graduating with honors of the professional excellence award and research excellence award. After his graduate studies, he served as Chief Resident of the St. Luke’s Orthopedic Physical Therapy Residency Program. Sherif is a Board Certified Orthopedic Clinical Specialist. Sherif focuses on understanding how movement impairments are affecting function while also promoting lifestyle changes in order to prevent recurrences of injury. His early treatment interests include running related injuries, adolescent sports rehab, and ACL rehab in lower extremity athletes. He also has been involved in performance training for youth soccer players. Outside of working as a physical therapist, he enjoys traveling, running and cycling, following Philadelphia sports teams, and spending time with his family.






Disclaimer – The content here is designed for information & education purposes only and is not intended for medical advice.

About the author : Sherif Elnaggar PT, DPT, OCS


  1. Mai Quigley January 24, 2021 at 5:46 am

    Very interesting article.

  2. Rob August 20, 2021 at 5:05 pm

    Hello. Is it common for the side that has the piriformis syndrome to cause out toeing / duck foot on the affected side?

    It’s where the foot points outward when walking even though the other foot points forward.

    • Sherif Elnaggar August 23, 2021 at 4:46 am

      Hi! Great question. There has not been many high quality studies correlating toeing out position and piriformis syndrome, however, foot position may sometimes play a role in other movement abnormalities or lead to pain throughout the kinetic chain, at the hip and knee for example. Here is another article we wrote about joint-by-joint information if you would like to learn more!


  3. Rob October 14, 2021 at 5:40 pm

    Can I do hip thrust and side planks every day without overtraining? Hip abduction really helps me move and feel better after stretching. If I only did the stretching without the hip abduction afterwards, I feel worse.

    • Sherif Elnaggar October 19, 2021 at 6:01 am

      Hello Rob! Great question. If you are doing hip thrusts with a significant amount of load, it may benefit you to have some rest days in between those in order to allow for adequate muscle recovery. However, if you are working on activating your glutes without significant load, and it feels better for you, then that is a great way to keep those glutes active without overtraining!

  4. Sue December 19, 2021 at 11:22 am

    Really well done. A lot of good information. I have chronic piriformis issues with and without the SN pain. Abduction and hip flexors are always a challenge being very tight. Too many years on long flights and sitting in an office. Thanks for the tips, they are consistent with what I currently do to alleviate the issues.

    • Team [P]Rehab December 19, 2021 at 2:15 pm

      Thank you Sue! We are glad that you have found this article to be helpful as well as relatable to your experiences. Sitting during long flights and work days definitely can contribute to hip related pain. We are very thankful for your positive comment as well as sharing your experiences that others may hopefully be able to relate to as well. We hope that you are well and staying healthy!

      All The Best,

      Team [P]Rehab

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