Proper Hamstring Stretching

Proper Hamstring Stretching

Stretching after a workout should be a stable of any recovery program. Tight muscles can lead to muscle imbalances, abnormal movement patterns, and muscle spasms. However, as with any movement, there is an optimal way to stretch your hamstrings. Proper hamstring stretching does not mean that you should be feeling a stretch in your foot!

The hamstrings are a group of three muscles that include: the biceps femoris (long head), semimembranosus, and semitendinosus.

All three muscles of the posterior thigh originate from the ischial tuberosity of the hip and insert into either the tibia or fibula at the knee. The hamstrings flex the knee and extend the hip; thus, to stretch the hamstrings you must do the opposite actions: extend the knee and flex the hip. So if the hamstrings originate at the hip and insert at the knee, should you be feeling a hamstring stretch in your lower leg or foot?

ANSWER: NO!

 

What Am I Feeling Then?

If youโ€™re feeling a โ€œstretchโ€ in your lower leg or foot during a hamstring stretch, you are most likely experiencing neurogenic symptoms arising from the sciatic nerve. The sciatic nerve, the largest and longest nerve in the body, branches off the lumbosacral plexus (L4-S3) near the hips and runs down the posterior thigh and leg all the way to the foot. Unlike muscles, nerves do not like to be stretched or tensioned. Instead, nerves are supposed to glide or slide within soft tissue nerve beds. Impaired neurodynamics or soft tissue restrictions limit nerve sliding and instead tension the nerve. This can generate symptoms of pain, numbness, and tingling, anywhere along the nerveโ€™s sensory distribution.

Certain hamstring stretches, in particular, are very prone to also tensioning the sciatic nerve. While knee extension and hip flexion stretch the hamstrings, this movement can also potentially tension the sciatic nerve, if neurodynamics are impaired. However, the majority of individuals can handle this small amount of neural tension. Certain positions at other joints, like the neck, hips, back, or ankle, can place undesired, additional tension on your nerves. It is these particular joint positions below that you want to be sure to avoid during hamstring stretching to ensure you arenโ€™t placing excessive tension on your sciatic nerve.

AVOID THESE JOINT POSITIONS TO MINIMIZE NEURAL TENSION: Ankle dorsiflexion, Lumbar spine flexion (rounding your back), Cervical spine flexion (looking down),ย Hip adduction or hip medial rotation (turning your toes inwards).

Therefore, an optimal hamstring string stretch should only stretch the hamstrings, without tensioning the sciatic nerve. So, whatโ€™s the best way to properly stretch the hamstrings while minimizing as much neural tension as possible?

 

Standing Hamstring Stretch With Leg Elevated

  1. Raise your desired leg to be stretched on a slightly elevated surface. Keep your toes pointed down.
  2. Extend your knee, but keep a slight bend in it. You will still get a hamstring stretch through lengthening at the proximal end near the hip.
  3. Tuck your pelvic or anterior pelvic tilt.ย The hamstrings attach to the ischial tuberosity of the pelvis, therefore a anteriorย pelvic tilt will lengthen the hamstrings proximally.
    — Many times, just after these initial three steps, you will feel a good stretch in your hamstrings. To increase the stretch even more:
  4. While maintaining neutral spine position, slowly lean forward to increase hip flexion until you feel a stretch. Do not loose neutral spine position and slump forward, as this places large amounts of tension on your nerves!

***Throughout all these motions, be sure to avoid the above 4 joint positions that tension the sciatic nerve: ankle dorsiflexion, lumbar spine flexion, cervical spine flexion, hip adduction or hip internal rotation.

When properly stretching your hamstrings, you should only feel a stretch in your hamstrings. No โ€œstretch-like sensationsโ€, burning, numbness, or tingling anywhere else but your hamstrings at any time! If you are still experiencing neural symptoms with the above stretch, try pointing your towns down (ankle plantarflexion) and look up (cervical spine extension). If balance or kinesthetic awareness is an issue, try the exact same stretch on your back with the leg to be stretched elevated.

proper hamstring stretching

 

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11 Comments
  • Luke sanders
    Posted at 14:05h, 20 January Reply

    Rather than stretching the hamstrings with a posterior pelvic tilt (putting more strain on the spine) surely the answer to this question is that it is normal if your calves are you tightest area, work on your calf flexibility?

    • Michael
      Posted at 13:34h, 25 January Reply

      Hi Luke! I made a slight error when I said using a posterior pelvic tilt to stretch the hamstrings, it should be an anterior pelvis tilt.

      But yes, an anterior pelvis tilt is associated with increased lumbar lordosis. However, this is not putting any strain on the spine because there is not an axially-directed external load applied to the spine (like when performing a back squat) and this position is help for only 30 seconds (in a stretch).

      Additionally, if your calves are your tightest area, then by all means stretch them and work on calf flexibility! However, the triceps sura muscle groups is strictly in the lower shank (grastrocnemius attaches to distal medial + lateral epicondyle of the femur). So if your goal is to stretch you hamstrings, you SHOULD NOT feel a stretch in your calf. Because the hamstrings do not connect to your calf! (they insert into the head of the fibula/medial tibial tuberosity). The anatomical connection between you ankle and you hip is not your calf muscle itself, but your neurologic tissues, specifically your sciatic nerve and its nerve branches.

      • Luke Sanders
        Posted at 14:35h, 25 January Reply

        Interesting, thanks for the reply

      • Rod Millington
        Posted at 01:25h, 13 April Reply

        Hi Michael,
        I note that in other posts you have had information about muscle slings. What is your feelings about the fascial connections between the gastrocnemius and hamstring muscles?
        I have taught my patients the exact hamstring stretch in your article for many years. However, if there are no neurological red flags, I also use fascial stretch techniques with good results.

        • Michael Lau
          Posted at 12:30h, 21 April Reply

          I think fascial stretching is good! As long as like you said there are no neurological signs, we are all good to go!

  • Aimee
    Posted at 04:59h, 06 August Reply

    Quick question: if the “semis” cause internal rotation, why is it that my textbook suggests “hip flexion, knee extension and internal rotation of the hip” to stretch them? Surely external rotation would better stretch them, to oppose the action? I’m confused? :/

    • Michael Lau
      Posted at 08:05h, 11 August Reply

      You are correct. To hit the medial HSs (semimembranosus and semitendinosus) you would want to externally rotate the femur. To hit the lateral HS (biceps femoris) you would want to internally rotate the femur. Not sure why it says otherwise in your book!

  • Youssef
    Posted at 04:14h, 26 October Reply

    This page just changed everything for me. It validated what I have been feeling and telling others for so long. I’m a young doctor and I just knew that I shudnt be feeling this seemingly neurogenic pain whenever I tried to stretch my hamstrings. I’m so grateful THANK YOU!

    • Michael Lau
      Posted at 12:37h, 10 November Reply

      Happy to have provided some insight!! Thanks for reading!

  • Lina
    Posted at 02:53h, 16 April Reply

    Im practicing the back pain recovery program and last week started the nerve tensioners so on my back i lift my leg and as soon as i do dorsiflexion i feel burning or streching pain on my ankle above the bony part. So should i continue with the nerve tensioners or what should i do instead? Thank you!!

    • Michael Lau
      Posted at 12:31h, 21 April Reply

      Hi Linda! For questions related directly to the program, please email us directly in the future! Make sure you have done the sliders first. If you have and you are working on your tensioners, stop right before you feel it in your ankle. So that might mean not fully dorsiflexing your ankle. Hope that helps and you’re enjoying the program!

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