For decades, Kenyan and Ethiopian runners, both male and female, have dominated long distance running on the world stage. With their dominance comes the curiosity and intrigue looking for answers about how and why they've risen to the top in such an impressive and sustained manner. Kenya and Ethiopia first competed in the Olympics in 1956. In 1960, Ethiopia won its first Olympic medal with Abebe Bikila taking the gold in the marathon event in Rome. Shortly thereafter, Wilson Kiprugut won Kenya's first Olympic medal, with a third-place finish in the 800m event in 1964. Since then, Kenya and Ethiopia have come to dominate the middle and long distance events at the Olympics, World Championships, and other international events, including IAAF World Cross-Country Championships and major marathons and road races across the world. Here we attempt to uncover the secrets to long distance running, and factors that may explain the unparalleled success of East African long distance runners!